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Showing posts with label Lecture Notes. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Lecture Notes. Show all posts

Newer Targets for Treatment of Asthma: A Glimpse into the Future

Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, affects millions of people worldwide. Despite existing treatment options, asthma remains uncontrolled in a significant proportion of patients, necessitating research into novel therapeutic targets. This article explores some of the promising new targets currently being investigated for the treatment of asthma.

Biologic Therapies

Biologic therapies, which target specific molecules involved in the immune response, have emerged as a promising area of asthma treatment.

  1. Anti-Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and Anti-IL-5R Therapies: IL-5 plays a key role in the maturation and survival of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell involved in asthma inflammation. Biologics such as mepolizumab, reslizumab, and benralizumab target IL-5 or its receptor (IL-5R), reducing eosinophilic inflammation and the frequency of asthma exacerbations.
  2. Anti-Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Anti-Interleukin-13 (IL-13) Therapies: IL-4 and IL-13 are also crucial in the immune response leading to asthma. Dupilumab, a biologic drug that inhibits both IL-4 and IL-13, has shown promise in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma.

Bronchial Thermoplasty

Bronchial thermoplasty is a novel non-pharmacological intervention for severe asthma. It involves applying controlled thermal energy to the airway walls during a series of bronchoscopy procedures, reducing the amount of airway smooth muscle and thereby diminishing the airways' ability to constrict.

Targeting Neutrophilic Asthma

While eosinophilic asthma has been the focus of many new therapies, neutrophilic asthma, another subtype of the disease, has proven more challenging. However, new targets are being explored:

Anti-Interleukin-17 (IL-17) Therapy: IL-17 has been associated with neutrophilic inflammation in asthma. Anti-IL-17 therapies are being investigated for their potential to reduce neutrophilic airway inflammation.

Anti-Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Therapy: As a potent neutrophil attractant, IL-8 is another potential target in neutrophilic asthma. Research is ongoing to develop therapies that can block IL-8 or its receptor.

Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) Inhibitors: PDE4 inhibitors, such as roflumilast, can reduce inflammation and are being investigated for use in severe neutrophilic asthma.

Emerging Targets

Other potential treatment targets include toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play a role in the immune response, and chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling in asthma.

The landscape of asthma treatment is evolving, with promising new therapies targeting the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. As our understanding of asthma's complex immunological and physiological processes deepens, we can expect even more sophisticated and effective treatments to emerge, offering hope for those living with this chronic condition. However, as with any new therapeutic strategies, these potential treatments must undergo rigorous testing for safety and efficacy before they can be incorporated into routine clinical practice.

Blood supply of internal capsule

Blood supply of internal capsule comes from 3 main arteries they are
Lateral striate branches of middle cerebral artery.
Medial striate branches of anterior cerebral artery.
Anterior choroidal branches of internal carotid artery.

Lateral striate branches of middle cerebral artery supply
  1. Anterior limb.
  2. Genu.
  3. Posterior limb.
  4. Basal ganglia.
Medial striate branches of anterior cerebral artery supply
  1. Anterior limb.
  2. Genu.
  3. Basal ganglia.
Anterior choroidal branches of internal carotid supply
  1. Posterior limb.
  2. Retrolenticular part.
Anterior limb is supplied by the following arteries
  1. Ant cerebral artery through medial striate branch.
  2. Middle cerebral artery through lateralstriate and lenticulostriate branches.
Genu is supplied by
  1. Anterior cerebral artery through medial striate branch.
  2. Middle cerebral artery through lateral striate and lenticulostriate branch.
  3. Branches of internal carotid artery.
Posterior limb is supplied by
  1. Middle cerebral artery through lateral striate and lenticulostriate branch. It is called Charcot’s artery of cerebral haemorrhage.
  2. Anterior choroidal artery, direct branch of internal carotid artery As it is long and slender it has tendency to get thrombosis.

Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

This include hormone secreted by adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)and neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
Hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)
1.Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Triggers the release of thyroid hormones
Thyrotropin releasing hormone promotes the release of TSH
2.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal gland
Corticotrophin releasing hormone causes the secretion of ACTH
3.Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Stimulates follicle development and estrogen secretion in females and sperm production in males
4.Leutinizing hormone (LH)
Causes ovulation and progestin production in females and androgen production in males
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH) promotes the secretion of FSH and LH
5.Prolactin (PH)
Stimulates the development of mammary glands and milk production
6.Growth hormone (GH or somatotropin)
Stimulates cell growth and replication through release of somatomedins or IGF
Secretion is controlled by Growth-hormone releasing hormone  (GH-RH) and Growth-hormone inhibiting hormone  (GH-IH)
7.Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
May be secreted by the pars intermedia during fetal development, early childhood, pregnancy or certain diseases
Stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin
The hormones secreted by posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis)
Posterior pituitary contains axons of hypothalamic nerves
Neurons of the supraoptic nucleus manufacture antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 
Decreases the amount of water lost at the kidneys
Elevates blood pressure
Neurons of the paraventricular nucleus manufacture oxytocin
Stimulates contractile cells in mammary glands
Stimulates smooth muscle cells in uterus

Biochemistry Lectures Notes from University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS)

The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is Arkansas' only comprehensive academic health center with outreach programs operating in every county and a regional campus in Northwest Arkansas

Biochemistry Lectures Notes from University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS)

18. Enzymes
60. Carbohydrates

Biochemistry Lectures Notes from University of Houston

University of Houston is the leading public research university in the vibrant international city of Houston. Each year, we educate more than 40,750 students in more than 300 undergraduate and graduate academic programs, on campus and online.UH is located in Houston, Texas, the nation’s fourth-largest city and the energy capital of the world.

Biochemistry Lectures Notes from University of Houston

6.    Amino Acids
18. Catalysis  

Biochemistry Lecture (Notes from University of Nevada, Reno )

The following are the notes from University of Nevada, Reno
The University of Nevada, Reno (usually referred to as the University of Nevada or Nevada, and often abbreviated as UNR) is a teaching and research university established in 1874 and located in Reno, Nevada, USA. It is the sole land grant institution for the state of Nevada. 

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Biochemistry (Lecture -  1)
Chapter 2 - Properties of Water/pH/Buffers (Lecture -  2, 3)
Chapter 3 - Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins (Lecture -  3, 4)
Chapter 3 - Protein purification/Analysis (Lecture -  5)
Chapter 4 - (Part 1) - Protein Structure Introduction / 2o Structure (Lecture -  6)
Chapter 4 - (Part 2) - Protein 3-D structure: 3o and 4o structure and protein folding (Lecture -  7)
Chapter 4 - (Part 3) - Protein 3-D structure: Structure Function (Lecture -  8)
Chapter 5 - (Part1) - Enzymes - Introduction (Lecture -  9)
Chapter 5 - (Part2) - Enzymes - Michaelis-Menton Kinetics (Lecture -  10)
Chapter 5 - (Part3) - Enzymes - More Kinetics (Lecture -  11)
Chapter 5 - (Part 4) - Enzymes Regulation (Lecture -  12)
Chapter 6 - (Part 1) - Enzymes Mechanisms (Lecture -  14) 
Chapter 7 - (Part 1) - cofactors (Lecture -  15) 
Chapter 7 - (Part 2) - cofactors (Lecture -  16) 
Chapter 8 - (Part 1) - Carbohydrates: monosaccharides (Lecture -  17) 
Chapter 8 - (Part2) - Carbohydrates: oligo- and polysaccharides (Lecture -  18 
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Chapter 9 - (Part1) - Lipids and Membrane (Lecture -  19) 
Chapter 9 - (Part2) - Lipids and Membrane (Lecture -  20) 
Chapter 9 - (Part3) - Lipids and Membrane (Lecture -  21) 
Chapter 10 - Introduction to Metabolism (Lecture -  22) 
Chapter 11 - Glycolysis (Lecture -  23) 
Chapter 11 - Glycolysis (Lecture -  24) 
Chapter 12 - Citric Acid Cycle (Lecture -  25) 
Chapter 13 - Additional Pathways of Carbohydrate metabolism (Lecture -  26) 
Chapter 14 - Electron Transport (Lecture -  27) 
Chapter 14 - Oxidative Phosphorylation (Lecture -  28) 
Chapter 15 - Photosynthetic Electron Transport (Lecture -  29) 
Chapter 15 - Photophosphorylation (Lecture -  30) 
Chapter 15 - Carbon Fixation (dark reactions) (Lecture -  31) 
Chapter 16 - Lipid Absorption and Mobilization (Lecture -  32) 
Chapter 16 - Fatty Acid Catabolism (b-oxidation) (Lecture -  33) 
Chapter 16 - Fatty Acid Synthesis (Lecture -  34)
Chapter 16 - Synthesis of Eicosanoids, Glycerolipids and Isoprenoids (Lecture -  35)
Chapter 17 - Nitrogen Assimilation and Amino Acid Synthesis (Lecture -  36) 
Chapter 17 - Protein Degradation and Amino Acid Catabolism (Lecture -  37) 
Summary of Metabolism
Chapter 19 - Nucleic Acids (Lecture -  38) 
Chapter 19 - Nucleic Acids (Lecture -  39) 
Chapter 20 - DNA Replication and Repair (Lecture -  40) 
Chapter 21 - Transcription (Lecture -  41) 
Chapter 21 - Transcriptional Regulation and RNA Processing (Lecture -  42) 
Chapter 22 - Protein Synthesis (Part 1) (Lecture -  43) 
Chapter 22 - Protein Synthesis (Part 2) (Lecture -  44) 
Chapter 23 - Recombinant DNA Technologies (Part 1) (Lecture -  45) 
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